پیش آزمون

 

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پیش آزمون

آیا هر یك از دانش آموزان  برای درك   مطالب  و كسب  مهارت های  جدید ، اطلاعات و  توانایی لازم  را قبلا ً به  دست آورده اند ؟

آیا عده ای  از دانش آموزان قبلاً بعضی از هدف های آموزشی درس جدید را آموخته اند ؟

آزمونی كه پیش ازشروع به آموزش انجام می گیرد.كارشناسان معتقدند پیش آزمون هایك راه كاراساسی  و بنیادی برای محك زدن سطح پتانسیل علمی متعلم است . در واقع با این گونه  ارزشیابی ها ، می توان  قدرت علمی وسطح دانش نظری دانش آموزان راسنجیدومطالب بعدی رامنطبق برهمین معیارهاوبادرنظرداشتن توانایی علمی اوو البته به فراخور داشته-  های قبلی دانش آموز به او ارائه نمود .

بر اساس  روش  سنتی  كافی  است  كتاب های  درسی  دوره های  قبل را مورد بررسی قرار دهیم و ادعا كنیم كه دانش آموزان اطلاعات و زمینه ی كافی برای درس جدید را قبلاً كسب كرده اند . ولی آیا می توان به چنین  قضاوتی اطمینان و اكتفا كرد؟ یعنی می توان گفت كه همه ی دانش آموزان  معلومات و توانایی لازم برای درك مفاهیم جدید را دارند  و هیچ كدام نیازی به جبران وتكمیل معلومات ورودی خود ندارند ؟ اندكی تأمل و احتیاط در باره ی چنین  قضاوتی ایجاب می- كندكه معلم خود شخصاً جواب سؤال راپید كند . برای  این كارمعلم بایدپیش ازشروع درس جدید پیش آزمونی انجام دهد یعنی معلومات ورودی  دانش آموزان را  بسنجد تا  بتواند پیش نیازهای آنان را مشخص كند بنا بر این یكی از نتایج  انجام دادن پیش آزمون تشخیص و اطلاع  از میزان  رفتار  ورودی دانش آموزان است كه بر این اساس معلم می تواند :

الف – كمبودها ونارسایی های آموزشی رااز طریق آموزش های تكمیلی (ترمیمی ) و رهنمودهای لازم جبران كند .

ب – هدف هاو فعالیت های جدیدآموزشی رامتناسب بامیزان توانایی های دانش آموزان اصلاح وتنظیم كند .

ج – نقطه ی درس جدید را طوری انتخاب كند كه همه ی دانش آموزان از آن بهره مند شوند .

نكته ی بسیار مهم و  قابل توجه در انجام  دادن پیش آزمون  این است كه  دانش آموزان  همواره مقصود  از پیش آزمون را بفهمد تا با رغبت وعلاقه در آن شركت كنند زیراچنانچه  دانش آموزان از هدف واقعی پیش آزمون ها آگاه نباشند احتمال می رود این عمل جنبه ی امتحان به  خود  بگیرد  و سبب نگرانی و خستگی روحی آنان شود .

فایده ی دیگر پیش آزمون این است كه معلم می تواندبرمبنای كمبودها ی آموزشی دانش آموزان  نوع و درجه ی فعالیت گروه دانش آموزان  و یا  فرد فرد آنان  را  مشخص كند .

پیش آزمون  به مدیران و معلمان این امكان را می دهد تاپس ازگذشت  زمانی  از سال  تحصیلی و با انجام  ارزشیابی های مستمر،درعملكرد خود بنگرندوبدانندكه آیا شیوه ی تدریس وآموزش آنان مفیدبوده یاخیر؟با اعمال این روش همان طور كه اشاره شد معلمان قبل از تدریس، ازمیزان معلومات ونقاط قوت وضعف دانش آموزان خودآگاهی یافته ، الگوی تدریس خود را  بر اساس همان  اطلاعات  مدون می سازند . البته این عمل زمانی قابل اعتنا می باشد كه متولیان امتحانات به طور دقیق ،برشیوه ی اجرای  سازمان یافته و سلامتی كامل آن ، نظارت دقیق و اطمینان صددرصد  داشته باشند تابه هر ترتیب ، بتوان در تجزیه و تحلیل آماری ، نتایج استخراج شده را معتبر دانست و مورد استناد قرار داد . ازسوی دیگر، ازآنجا كه در مباحث اصول ، روش ها  و فنون تدریس وشیوه های  نوین  ارزشیابی بر این نوع  آزمون ها  تأكید  فراوان  شده است و این مهم مبین آن است كه  این   ارزشیابی ، به طورقطع  و  البته در دراز مدت در ارتقای كیفیت آموزشی تأثیر مطلوبی خواهد نهاد  و به ویژه درشرایط فعلی كه دستگاه آموزش و  پرورش با  موج  فزاینده ی  افت تحصیلی روبروست  اهمیت  این گونه آزمون ها  صد چندان می شود وامید به بهبود كیفی تحصیلات آینده ، ما را ترغیب می سازدتا به مهم ترین بخش درفرآیند  یادگیری  یعنی ارزشیابی و تجزیه وتحلیل اهتمام ورزیم .

نتیجه این كه اگرپیش آزمون هابه شكل اصولی وسازنده ومنطبق بامعیارهای رایج درعرصه ی تعلیم وتربیت برگزار شوددر  دراز مدت نتایجی بس مفیدخواهد داشت كه چشم پوشی از این عواقب خوب وثمربخش ، به هیچ روی قابل اغماض نیست .

تدریس یک موضوع چندوجهی است . ازیک طرف بانحوه ی تفکرونیازهاوعلایق دانش آموزان مرتبط استوازطرف دیگربایدبه گونه ای باشدکه زمینه های رشدجنبه های مختلف هوش رافراهم آورد. ازطرف دیگر، بایدبایافته های روانشاختی تدریس- تفاوت های فردی نحوه ی تعامل وارتباط بادانش آموزان و... – هماهنگ باشد. هم چنین بایدبانظریات یاددهی- یادگیری ارتباط داشته باشد. به عبارت دیگر، درفرایند تدریس بایدجلوه هایی ازنظریات یادگیری نوین(فراشناخت وساختارگرایی) حضورداشته باشد . همه ی این موارد جزء ابعادتدریس است اماتمام واقعیت نیست .

واقعیت این است که تدریس یک مقوله فرهنگی است وباجلوه های مختلف فرهنگ – باورها، ارزش ها، اعتقادات، آداب ورسوم

هنجارهاواحساسات ، هیجانات، علایق، نگرش و .... – درارتباط است.

فرهنگ معلم ، دانش آموز، خانواده هاوجامعه دراین فرایندنقش دارند . به عبارت دیگر،باورهاوانگیزه های معلم ودانش آموزکه حاصل جهان بینی وایدئولوژی مکتبی وارزش های ملی وفرهنگی خانواده هاوجامعه است، تأثیرشگرفی برفعالیت های تدریس می گذارد. نتایج پژوهش های انجام شده درتحلیل علل ضعف دانش آموزان درطرح  تیمز نیز حاکی ازاین واقعیت است که آموزش وتدریس اساساً یک مقوله ی فرهنگی است (آرانی ومقدم 1384،2)

درسال های اخیر، برنامه ریزان درسی سعی کرده اندباعنایت به یافته های پژوهشی، فرایندبرنامه ی درسی راازرویکردانتقالی ونتیجه محوربه رویکردحل مسأله اکتشافی وفرایندمحورتغییردهند.امادرعمل ، چندان اثربخش نبوده است .

علت چیست ؟

رویکردانتقالی ونتیجه محوردرنگرش معلمان وخانواده های ایرانی به صورت فرهنگ درآمده است .بابخشنامه وتشکیل چند دوره ی آموزشی وتغییرمحتوای کتاب های درسی و ... حاصل نشده است .بنابراین می توان اذعان داشت که تغییررویکرد انتقالی ونتیجه محوربه رویکرداکتشافی وفرایندمحور، نیازمندتغییرفرهنگ آموزش درایران است واین مطلب نیازمندفرهنگ سازی ازسوی همه ی رسانه ها ونهادهای ذیربط است . زیراعوامل فرهنگی بسیارپایدارندوبه آسانی تغییرنمی یابند .



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پنجشنبه 20 تیر 1398 12:29 ق.ظ
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پنجشنبه 13 تیر 1398 12:21 ق.ظ
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نمایش نظرات 1 تا 30


مبانی نظری تدریس یکشنبه 2 اسفند 1388
آموزش به وسیله کامپیوتر جمعه 2 بهمن 1388
روش تدریس پنجشنبه 17 دی 1388
انتخاب مواد و منابع آموزشی شنبه 12 دی 1388
دیدگاههای مختلف تدریس چهارشنبه 2 دی 1388
پیش آزمون جمعه 27 آذر 1388
روش تدریس پنجشنبه 12 آذر 1388
الگوی تدریس 5E(بر اساس ساخت گرایی) شنبه 7 آذر 1388
آموزش برنامه ای programmed instruction: دوشنبه 2 آذر 1388
نگاهی به فرایند تدریس چهارشنبه 27 آبان 1388
محاسن و محدودیتهای روش سخنرانی یکشنبه 17 آبان 1388
مقایسه روش های تدریس یکشنبه 17 آبان 1388
انواع روشهای تدریس پنجشنبه 7 آبان 1388
روشهای آموزش انفرادی شنبه 2 آبان 1388
انواع روشهای تدریس شنبه 2 آبان 1388
مراحل اجرای روش بحث گروهی دوشنبه 27 مهر 1388
انواع روشهای تدریس دوشنبه 27 مهر 1388
انواع روشهای تدریس چهارشنبه 22 مهر 1388
انواع روشهای تدریس جمعه 17 مهر 1388
محاسن و محدودیتهای روش نمایشی یکشنبه 12 مهر 1388
تعریف روشهای تدریس یکشنبه 5 مهر 1388
مهر ورزی در اسلام پنجشنبه 2 مهر 1388
آیا كودك سالاری مهرورزی است؟ سه شنبه 31 شهریور 1388
مهر و محبت در خانواده و تاثیر آن بر فرزندان پنجشنبه 26 شهریور 1388
خانواده /مدرسه /جامعه شنبه 21 شهریور 1388
محبت و مهر ورزی بین زن و شوهر یکشنبه 15 شهریور 1388
مهرورزی به مردم پنجشنبه 12 شهریور 1388
‎محبت یکشنبه 8 شهریور 1388
مهر ورزی در اسلام شنبه 7 شهریور 1388
خانواده الگوهای اجتماعی در تدریس دوشنبه 2 شهریور 1388
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